Let Justice Roll Down Expanded Study Guide: Lesson One (Amos 1-2)
This is the first expanded study guide for our Sunday School series on Amos, entitled Let Justice Roll Down. You can watch the recorded live stream of the study by clicking here.
Introduction: Whose Justice Is It Anyway?
“No Justice, no Peace.”
“Justice for George Floyd.”
“Law and Order.”
“Black Lives Matter.”
“All Lives Matter.”
Whenever you say these words, tempers start flaring. Our church is not immune. If you don’t believe me, just try talking to someone about it. Protests numbering in the tens of thousands have filled our streets; looters have destroyed hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of dollars in property; tear gas and arsonists; shootings and beatings; the list goes on. Everyone has been affected, and there is one word on their minds: Justice.
This shouldn’t surprise us. No matter how hard we try, we can’t remove the law’s imprint on human hearts (Rom. 2:14-15), and with that imprint comes a longing for justice. For as long as there are people gathering together, there’s going to be cries for justice. Justice is a basic human need.
The question remains, however, what exactly is justice? What does it mean to live in a “just” society? We Christians tend to look with suspicion on non-Christian calls for justice, as their true cries are often sullied with perspectives and agendas that Christians can’t support. As Carl F. H. Henry wisely commented back in the seventies,
I have talked to scores of young people on college campuses who in the presence of legitimate grievances have found themselves in the awkward situation where they hesitated to identify themselves in protest with revolutionaries on their premise that the system needs to be overthrown, yet have had no live alternative but to sit on the sidelines and be considered indifferent to social injustices.
Right now, many of us find ourselves in that situation. Christians should be the first to echo cries for justice, but we cringe at the idea of buying into ideas that are ancillary to certain movements, such a rejection of traditional marriage. But we nonetheless find ourselves in a historic moment, and we need a guide to know what to do with our shock, our confusion, and our fears.
That’s where Amos comes in. The book of Amos is, perhaps above all the biblical text, the place to go when talking about justice. While the temptation would be to avoid the issue, the book of Amos gives us no such option, for Amos reveals that the issue of justice is central to who God is, and his concern that justice is done in this world is something he takes with grave seriousness. If we are to be faithful to the Bible and the God of that Bible, we must talk about and seek to apply what it says about justice in the social realm.
But there’s another reason we should go to Amos. Like I said, the temptation is going to be to avoid these issues because they have the possibility to divide us. But, as often is the case, when we back away from hard conversations and the difficult truths of the Bible, we don’t find real peace but instead a false peace, a peace that is nothing more than a lack of arguments. Political commentators and radio hosts are talking about justice, and should they lead the conversation? Should not we, as we bathe ourselves in Scripture, as we dig deeply into God’s Word, like those brave Bereans (Acts 17:10-11), be the ones who lead the cause for true justice? Justice ultimately belongs to God, and he has revealed to us in his word what that looks like. As we enter into the world of the Bible, we can re-enter our own world with a new lens by which to understand the complexities of our current cultural moment.
Such is the purpose of this series. We are going into the book of Amos with the intention of coming to terms with what the Bible says about issues of social justice. We want to come out of this series looking more like Amos, and more importantly, more like Jesus. The intention here is not to get you to align with a certain political party or platform, but rather to focus on God’s Word, God’s prerogatives, and God’s kingdom work. Peter reminds us that God has given us “all things that pertain to life and godliness” (2 Peter 1:3), and so as we act in faith that as we study God’s word, we trust that the result will be a unity of mind, a heart more like God’s, and actions that are pleasing to him. As Paul would say, “the aim of our charge is love that issues from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith” (1 Tim. 1:5). I encourage you to pray to that end.
Lesson One: The Bait and Switch
One of the most infuriating, albeit effective, forms of marketing is known as the bait and switch. If you’ve ever tried to buy a car, or received a spurious email, you know what I am talking about. A “bait and switch” is when someone says they are giving you one thing, but once they’ve got your attention you realize you’re in for something else. Like when someone emails you with some strange deal on your favorite products, but after you click you realize that not only was there no deal, but now your computer has a virus. Or an airline ticket that doesn’t include free water, or even a seat. Or any thousands of scams.
A bait and switch, however, can also be a powerful rhetorical tool, a way to coax someone into letting their guard down before really making your point. And that is exactly what the prophet Amos did in around the year 750 BC, when he crossed over from Judah into Israel with a message from God. This simple herdsman entered into Bethel, a center of political and religious power in the northern kingdom of Israel, and his message rang out in the king’s courts. People gathered around as he started to condemn all of Israel’s enemies, one after the other. He pronounced punishment on Damascus, and Gaza, and Tyre; on Edom and the Ammonites, the Moabites, and even his own people, the nation of Judah. As he talked, the Israelites began to nod in agreement, and you could even hear the occasional “amen” ring out. He denounced these sinful nations for their injustice and their lust for war, for their oppressive systems and their terror to the vulnerable, and the Israelites loved it. Now that’s the kind of message they like to hear from a prophet.
They took the bait.
But then, turning toward them, Amos says,
For three transgressions of Israel, and for four,
I will not revoke punishment,
because they sell the righteous for silver,
and the needy for a pair of sandals—
those who trample the head of the poor into the dust of the earth
and turn aside the way of the afflicted…” (Amos 2:6-7a).
For several minutes, with searing words, the prophet lays out all their idolatry and their injustice.
And now, these people are caught. They’d rejoiced as God punished other unjust and evil nations; what were they going to do now?
Amos: The Prophet of Justice
Amos, a Judean herdsman and farmer from the small village of Tekoa, received a message from God sometime in the middle of the eight century BC. He was firmly outside of the traditional image of a prophet, but (as he himself says), “the Lord took me from following the flock, and the Lord said to me, ‘Go, prophesy to my people Israel’” (Amos 7:15). He is fiery, intense, and unsparing. He lived in a day when there was both great division in Israel (the kingdom had been divided, with Israel in the North and Judah in the South, for over a hundred years) and great opulence (when a relative peace brought a boom in commercial and agricultural production). This so-called “golden age” in Israel was also a period of great moral and spiritual decline, which prophets such as Isaiah clearly laid out for them. This was compounded with a growing sense of nationalism in both Judah and Israel, where the people thought that their status as “God’s people” was sufficient to ward off any and all threats of punishment. Leaders and lay people alike suppressed any voices that prophesied anything other than “peace” to the nation (Amos 2:12; Isa. 30:10). By Jeremiah’s day, some hundred years later, prophets had become nothing but rhetoricians, not caring for truth but just trying to pull off the smoothest message (Jer. 28:1-11). Any message that proclaimed judgement on Israel was rejected: they were God’s people, after all, so nothing bad could happen to them.
This is the world into which Amos enters with a scathing message from God. As Leland Ryken writes,
[Amos] is what today we would call a social critic and protestor. We can picture him leading a march, carrying a placard, and writing letters to the editor of the local newspaper. In keeping with this role, he speaks for the oppressed and denounces institutional evil and the vices of the wealthy and powerful class of society.
Amos protests with such intensity because the people aren’t seeing things the way they really are. Behind the entire book there is to be found a silent detractor, the opposite side of the debate, which must have been vehemently opposed to him. The people did not perceive there to be any problem, and they were so annoyed with Amos that at one point they send the priest to try to silence him (7:10-13). Amos recognizes that his message will likely go unheeded, but he persists nonetheless. “The lion has roared; who will not fear?” he booms. “The Lord has spoken; who can but prophesy?” (Amos 3:8).
The message of Amos is clear: God cares about justice. Carl F. H. Henry, one of the most significant evangelical leaders in the post-World War II era, was famous for his insistence that Christians have an obligation to oppose evil in all its forms, and to pursue justice in the social realm. Henry writes that the Church fails when “it does not challenge the injustices of the totalitarianisms, the secularisms of modern education, the evils of racial hatred, the wrongs of current labor-management relations, [and] the inadequate bases of international dealings.” Christians, Henry argues, have a “social imperative” to “right the world.” When we talk about Amos, calling him the prophet of justice simply means that he is concerned with “the issues of justice as they relate to the most vulnerable members of Israelite society.” Because God cared about the most vulnerable in society, his anger was kindled when they were abused, and he rose up this outsider from Tekoa to preach his message.
The Bait: God’s Universal Standard of Justice (1:3-2:5)
When Amos begins his prophecy, he does so with words every Israelite could agree with. He lists off nation after nation, tracing a border around the northern kingdom of Israel, signaling condemnation for each one. Whether it is the people of Damascus for their oppression of the Gileadites (1:3-5), or the people of Gaza and Tyre for their carrying of people into exile (1:6-10), or the Edomites and the Ammonites for their lust for war (1:11-15), in each case the condemnation is the same, and he uses the same formula to describe it. First, he begins with “thus says the Lord,” and then he employs the common Hebraic numerical expression, “for three transgressions of [insert nation here], and for four, I will not revoke punishment…”. This type of talking is found throughout the Old Testament wisdom books (Proverbs especially) to describe something that is repeated, continual, and significant (see Proverbs 30 for many examples).
To the Hebrew reader, the message is unmistakable. There is no going back on these indictments. The judge of all the earth has spoken and has found each and every one of these nations wanting. It is important to note that not all of these sins (especially in the case of the Moabites, 2:1-3) are against God’s people. You can see Amos just hinting at what comes later when he makes this point. The sin of these nations was at a basic level sin against God’s image-bearers in the social realm. Amos may have had Genesis 9 in mind, when God makes a covenant with Noah with the famous stipulation,
whoever sheds the blood of man,
By man shall his blood be shed,
For God made man in his own image.
But what is fascinating here is that Amos applies this concept to other nations, as well as to more than just murder itself. In Amos’ reasoning, the peoples of this earth have a fundamental obligation to the just treatment of humans because of that essential quality: “God made man in his own image.” As you read Amos’ indictment of these nations, what stands out is his concern for people, regardless of national identity, and the way that nations and peoples have treated them. He is particularly horrified by what the Ammonites did to pregnant women (1:13), and with the oppression of Gilead by multiple nations (1:3, 13). He is even concerned about human bones (2:1-3).
Finally, Amos turns to Israel’s neighbor to the south, the people of Judah (2:4-5). Here his indictment is especially scathing, for two reasons. First off, the people of Judah get lumped with the rest of the nations. The same “for three…for four” formula is used for them (2:4), and the same punishment is promised (“I will send fire…and it shall devour the strongholds of Jerusalem,” 2:5). This was tantamount to saying that the people of Judah had no special place before God, that Jerusalem’s fate would be the same as that of Damascus, and that God had forsaken them. Not only this, but by “rejecting the law of the Lord,” the people of Judah had essentially broken God’s covenant with them, and so all those curses written in Deuteronomy 28:15-68 were coming their way (leading to exile, Deut. 28:64-68). You can hear the national pride swelling in the Israelites as they listen to this.
Amos’s message as he has condemned all the nations around Israel was this: God holds all nations and peoples accountable for their injustice. And you can imagine that all the people listening in Bethel were pleased, agreed heartily, and probably assumed that his message would stop there. If it were today, Amos would probably have been invited to repeat this prophecy all throughout the country. It would be published in newspapers and on blogs, and the people would buy-in, hook, line, and sinker. “Prophet Denounces Worldwide Evil” might be a fitting headline. The re-tweets would be tremendous.
Boy, were these people in for a shock.
The Switch: The Jig is Up! (2:6-16)
Even while Amos’s indictments of the nations are severe, they are nothing compared to what he reserves for Israel. Using the same formula as for the rest of the condemnations, he lays bare all of Israel’s sin with unwavering intensity. These people “sell the righteous for silver, and the needy for a pair of sandals.” (2:6). They “trample the head of the poor into the dust of the earth,” and “turn aside the way of the afflicted.” (2:7a). There is sexual exploitation, idolatry, and drunkenness in their midst (2:7b-8). Amos points both to individual sin and systemic injustice. The systems set up by leaders had baked into them an oppressive bias, where they “turned aside” the vulnerable and turned a blind eye to the slave trade. Creditors exploited their debtors by keeping their property (2:8, cf. Exod. 22:25-26; Deut. 24:12-13). The people’s laxity and luxury perpetuated this injustice, as they convinced the more religious in their midst to be like them and to stop worrying so much about justice (2:12). Throughout the rest of the book, and especially in chapters 3-6, Amos will expand on these sins in gritty, unrelenting detail, and the resulting vision is a sinful, unjust, and therefore unholy people.
Not only does Amos say that Israel is as bad as the rest of the nations (which itself would be untenable for the Israelite to believe), but he digs the knife in even deeper, revealing that they are actually worse. Each of these other nations had their own complex history and values, their pagan deities and their gross disobedience. But none of them had what Israel had, that is, with none of them had God revealed himself and made a covenant. The voice of the Lord through Amos stings as it reminds these people of all that God has done for them, from saving them from the Amorites (2:9), to delivering them from the land of Egypt (2:10). He had not stopped seeking them out, raising up both Nazarites (whose status as “separate to the Lord” was a continual check on license and indulgence, Num. 6:1-21) and prophets (who would continually remind them of the law). God had done everything possible to guide Israel and had even modeled how they should care for the vulnerable by his care for them in Egypt (2:9-11, see Deut. 10:18-19).
But Israel had still turned from God, and the result was destruction. Though these people gloried in their strength, wealth, and opulence, Amos prophesies only devastation, ruin, and terror. The swift hand of God’s justice would not spare them, as “the swift” fail to run fast enough, and “the strong” lose all their strength, and “the mighty” fail to save themselves. Their bowmen won’t be able to fend off the attackers, and no horse will outrun them. All the big wigs, the power players, the slave-traders and the oppressors, will be swept up in their own luxury “in that day” (2:13-16).
Just imagine the people hearing this message. People begin to fume with anger. You can hear many angrily pointing to all the prosperity, to Israel’s glorious history, and to their status as God’s people. This Judean was just being negative, and frankly insulting. How dare he say such things in the court of the king? Some begin to boo and hiss at him, while others gear up to arrest him. What Isaiah said of his own listeners, and Jesus of his, rings true here as well:
Keep on hearing, but do not understand. Keep on seeing, but do not perceive. Make the heart of this people fat, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes. Lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed. (Isa. 6:9-10; Matt. 13:14-15)
Amos won’t stop, however. He will keep preaching this message, and will give the people a chance to repent, to “seek the Lord and live” (5:6).
The question is, will they listen?
The Benefit of The Shock Treatment
When we hear hard truths about ourselves, we tend to react like the Israelites did here. Especially when it comes from outsiders, our gut reactions to criticisms about people and cultures of which we are a part is to be skeptical and critical. Part of our heart doesn’t know what to believe, and the other part doesn’t want to believe it. If there is one thing that is demonstrably true, it is that cultures and groups tend to be really bad at self-reflection and examination.
That is why Amos chose to use this shock treatment. He cuts in broad strokes and condemns whole peoples because he knows the extent to which these people have gone to ignore the issues of injustice among them. He is fully aware of the prophets who speak calm, peaceful messages in their ear day after day. He hears the rationalizers and the smooth talkers. He sees the corrupting influence of opulence all around. He’s noticed the suppression of contrary voices and the trumpeting of their national history. The more these people have refused the medicine, the sicker they have become, and now the only option is major surgery.
As Leland Ryken writes, “the book [of Amos] is designed to… subject its readers to a shock treatment in regard to their complicity with evil [and] expose the public and institutionalized forms of corruption, including the corruption of the wealthy and privileged classes within society…” The reality is that for as long as people get together this side of Jesus return, Amos’ message will always be relevant. We need to hear Amos’ words, and think seriously about how our culture (maybe not you individually) has treated the oppressed, marginalized, and vulnerable. While the temptation is to defend, Amos begs us to first listen.
Many a modern Amos is doing the same. While at first the looters and rioters, and now the protestors, have received all the media coverage, the reality remains that many of our Christian leaders are following Amos’ example in this current moment. From Timothy Dalrymple, the president of Christianity Today, to Senator Marco Rubio;from Christ Community church in Kansas City, to the blog of the EFCA; from Ed Stetzer, to Wheaton College;many Christian leaders from various branches of evangelicalism and conservatism have called Christians to respond with lament, a listening ear, and a heart for justice. While it may shock us to hear what they have to say, if we want to follow the God of justice, we must listen nonetheless.
Next week we will see how the people of Amos’ day refused to listen, and how bad things really became. These visions of a sinful people, if we read them well, will cause us to cry out for justice. And they will change the way we seek justice in our world.
Excursus: The Biblical Definition of Justice
One of the most confusing aspects of the current situation is this universal cry for justice. The sheer variety of peoples demanding justice is astounding, with many who never before spoke up for the needs of the vulnerable gathering to see justice served. But, as we have said, justice spoken does not mean justice understood. The virtue of being “just”, and living in a just society, still remain somewhat nebulous and obscure. And we, as Christian people, find ourselves surprisingly unaware of what justice itself is.
The reason that is surprising is that the Bible has much to say about justice. The basic Hebrew term for “justice” is מִשְׁפָּט, or miš-pāt. Its meaning can range from “decision, judgment” to simply “measure,” and it appears 425 times in the Old Testament. It is often connected with another term, צְדָקָה (sdqa), “righteousness.” These two occur so frequently together that they are thought of as a kind of all-encompassing word pair describing human social action. As Alec Motyer writes, they often can refer to “the sum total of what the Lord has adjudged to be right, in a word, the will of God (Rom. 12:2).” Justice and righteousness often refer, not just to legal matters j, but rather to “God’s expectations for his people with regard to every aspect of society.”
Justice and righteousness are fundamentally extensions of God’s character. The psalmists write that God “loves righteousness and justice” (Ps. 33:5) and that these two attributes are the foundation of his holy throne (Ps. 89:14; 97:2). His holiness is revealed in righteousness, and his glory in justice (Isa. 5:16). To know God is to know him as “the Lord who practices steadfast love, justice, and righteousness in the earth” (Jer. 9:24). As the judge of all the earth, Yahweh always does what is just (Gen. 18:25). In this sense there is a very important connection between worshipping God in truth and doing justice, with idolatry and disobedience often leading one away from both a personal relationship with God and love for their neighbors (Amos 5:18-27).
Justice, as so closely connected with God’s being, is best thought of as his will (or desire) for how to treat his image bearers. The entire narrative of the Bible shows God’s overwhelming concern to have human beings act as he does, in justice toward one another. From the first murder (Gen. 4:1-16) to every evil act, God punishes all injustice as the antithesis of his character. God’s will in the social realm is for human beings to “turn away from evil and do good” (Ps. 37:27), to “observe justice” and “do righteousness at all times” (Ps. 106:3, see Zech. 7:9). This includes fairness in dealings, refusing to bear false witness, seeking equal representation under just and kind laws, and walking in steadfast love for our fellow image-bearers of God (Deut. 25:15; Ex. 23:1-9; Mic. 6:6-8). Because of the oft-forgetful nature of the human administration of justice, God is particularly concerned with those who fall outside of the normal structures of societal concern. These are what B.P. Irwin calls “marginalized groups,” which included the “almāna (‘widow’), yātôm (‘orphan’), gēr (‘sojourner, alien, refugee’), anî (‘poor, afflicted’), ebyôn (‘needy, oppressed’) and dal (‘weak, helpless’).” These people are to be treated with special concern if justice is to be done (Ex. 23:6; Deut 27:19; Eccl. 5:8; Isa. 10:1; Jer. 5:28; Ma.l 3:5).
If justice is God’s will in society, the best place to look for justice is where God’s will is displayed: the law. In many ways, the law given to Moses was a display of what justice looked like in a society that sought to be pleasing to God. Abraham’s people were supposed to “keep the way of the Lord by doing righteousness and justice” (Gen. 18:19), and the giving of the law was the means by which to do that. Hill and Walton write that to the Israelite “there was hardly any greater display of God’s grace than that demonstrated in giving the law.” God’s commands are in their essence a gracious display of justice, and people do justly as they seek to follow them.
That is why, when one looks to the law, they see justice all over it. The people are forbidden to “pervert justice” by bearing false witness (Ex. 32:2, 6). God’s concern for justice in the case of the vulnerable is the motivation for why the people are commanded to “keep his charge, his statues, his rules, and his commandments always” (Deut 10:18-11:1). They must appoint judges and officers in all their cities because “justice, and only justice, you shall follow, that you may live and inherit the land that the Lord your God is giving you” (Deut. 16:18-20). If they follow God’s commands and let justice flow through their society, they will prosper in the land. But if they don’t, the land will vomit them up and they will be cursed (Lev. 18:24-28; Deut. 27:19). Justice is God’s law observed toward all, especially the vulnerable and oppressed.
God’s people, if they are to be faithful to him, must be people of justice. But justice in the Bible means more than merely the punishment of individual offenses. “Biblical justice,” writes Maxie Burch, “has always had a social, political, and economic dimension to it.” Burch continues,
The people of God, by virtue of their relationship with a God who has revealed himself as righteous and holy, have a heritage of responsibility to each other and the world around them. That heritage has meant carrying the witness of justice into every area of life, be it social, political or economic. It is a prophetic witness that often speaks against the culture as well as suffering the injustices of that culture.
Biblical justice means modeling God’s concern for the oppressed and vulnerable in every area of life. It means standing against bias in legal judgments (Lev. 19:15) and ensuring that human laws are reflective of God’s laws (Isa. 10:1-4). It means holding government officials accountable to do justice (Isa. 32:1). And, as we have seen from Amos, it means thinking deeply about societal blind spots and cruelties, as hard and as painful as that can be.
In conclusion, while there is much we could say, suffice it to say that “justice” is God’s will for how to treat his image-bearers in this world. God is the picture of ultimate justice and righteousness, and by looking to his will in the law we can gain a vision of what that will is for our world. As Timothy Keller defines “doing justly,”:
We do justice when we give all human being their due as creations of God. Doing justice includes not only the righting of wrongs, but generosity and social concern, especially toward the poor and vulnerable. This kind of life reflects the character of God. It consists of a broad range of activities, from simple fair and honest dealing with people in daily life, to regular, radically generous giving of your time and resources, to activism that seeks to end particular forms of injustice, violence, and oppression.
 Carl F H Henry, “The Tensions between Evangelism and the Christian Demand for Social Justice,” Fides et Historia 4, no. 2 (1972): 3–10, 8.
 Andrew E. Hill and John H. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009), 608.
 Karl Möller, “Amos”, in Dictionary of the Old Testament Prophets, ed. Mark J. Boda and J. Gordon McConville, Black Dictionaries on the Bible (Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2012), 5–15, 7.
 Not unlike some modern political commentators and radio hosts, who often don’t embody Biblical virtues but play to Christian and conservative sensibilities.
 Leland Ryken, Literary Introductions to the Books of the Bible (Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2015), 298.
 Möller, 7.
 Carl F. H. Henry, The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1947), loc 342.
 B.P. Irwin, “Social Justice,” in Dictionary of the Old Testament Prophets, Black Dictionaries on the Bible (Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2012),719.
 Hill and Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament, 611.
 Robert B. Chisholm, Interpreting the Minor Prophets (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, Gr, 1990).
 Ryken, Literary Introductions to the Books of the Bible, 304.
 Timothy Dalrymple, “Justice Too Long Delayed,” Christianity Today, June 10, 2020, https://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2020/june-web-only/justice-too-long-delayed.html?fbclid=IwAR2ewZLwILXVprpGjiPKVWzajP1CbOtFcgtHswzaDSp2G-UYTYm8QPTOzzw.
 Marco Rubio, “On the Unjust Death of George Floyd and Racism in America,” Public Discourse, June 9, 2020, https://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2020/06/64688/?fbclid=IwAR38N3vqIG5oqRw7vku14i0qTlrTf5gel4VoEkwBojO77iN8tDkok3BTFcA.
 Chris Brooks, “I Can’t Breathe: George Floyd, The Gospel, and Our Response,” Christ Community Blog (blog), n.d., https://christcommunitykc.org/i-cant-breathe-george-floyd-the-gospel-and-our-response/.
 Cedrick Brown, “The Unmuted Gospel: A Minority Pastor’s Message to the Majority Church,” EFCA Blog (blog), June 5, 2020, https://www.efca.org/blog/reaching-all-people/unmuted-gospel
 Ed Stetzer, “Pro ALL Life: Why I Protest and Encourage You to Do So Too,” The Exchange With Ed Stetzer (blog), June 6, 2020, https://www.christianitytoday.com/edstetzer/2020/june/why-i-protest-and-you-should-too.html.
 “Message to Campus from President and Senior Administrative Cabinet,” June 1, 2020, https://www.wheaton.edu/news/statements/message-to-campus/.
 Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Vol. 2, trans. M. E. J. Richardson, New edition (Leiden: Brill Academic Pub, 1996), 651.
 J. Alec Motyer, The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction & Commentary (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1993),47.
 E.R. Hayes, “Justice, Righteousness,” in Dictionary of the Old Testament Prophets, Black Dictionaries on the Bible (Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2012), 466–72, 466.
 Irwin, “Social Justice”, 721.
 Hill and Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament, 175.
 Maxie Burch, “Justice,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ed. Walter A. Elwell (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 2001), 641.
 Timothy Keller, Generous Justice: How God’s Grace Makes Us Just (New York: Penguin Books, 2010), 18.